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PTSD and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

PTSD and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury PDF Author: Jennifer J. Vasterling
Publisher: Guilford Press
ISBN: 1462503381
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 308

Book Description
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can each cause significant functional impairment--and these "invisible injuries" frequently co-occur. Events that lead to traumatic brain injury are often also psychologically traumatic. This authoritative volume brings together leading experts in PTSD and mTBI to explore the nature, consequences, and management of these interacting conditions. Presenting cutting-edge research and clinical practices, the book meets a growing need among mental health practitioners in both civilian and military contexts. The volume focuses on the complexities of caring for patients with comorbid PTSD and mTBI, whether caused by war-zone experiences, motor vehicle accidents, domestic violence or other interpersonal assaults, or sports concussions. Contributors examine the biological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying both disorders as well as potential ways they may affect each other. Commonly associated problems that may further complicate recovery--chronic pain and substance abuse--are also discussed in detail. Reviewing empirically based best practices in assessment and treatment, chapters offer recommendations for tailoring interventions to different patients' needs. Important topics include how to deal with dilemmas in evaluation and what treatment strategies work best for addressing overlapping symptoms. The book also considers ways to improve the structure and cost-effectiveness of providing care in this challenging area. Throughout, scientific controversies and unanswered questions are highlighted and promising directions for future research identified. Synthesizing knowledge from multiple disciplines, this is an essential reference for mental health practitioners and trauma specialists--including neuropsychologists, clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers--as well as graduate students and trainees.

PTSD and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

PTSD and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury PDF Author: Jennifer J. Vasterling
Publisher: Guilford Press
ISBN: 1462503381
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 308

Book Description
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can each cause significant functional impairment--and these "invisible injuries" frequently co-occur. Events that lead to traumatic brain injury are often also psychologically traumatic. This authoritative volume brings together leading experts in PTSD and mTBI to explore the nature, consequences, and management of these interacting conditions. Presenting cutting-edge research and clinical practices, the book meets a growing need among mental health practitioners in both civilian and military contexts. The volume focuses on the complexities of caring for patients with comorbid PTSD and mTBI, whether caused by war-zone experiences, motor vehicle accidents, domestic violence or other interpersonal assaults, or sports concussions. Contributors examine the biological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying both disorders as well as potential ways they may affect each other. Commonly associated problems that may further complicate recovery--chronic pain and substance abuse--are also discussed in detail. Reviewing empirically based best practices in assessment and treatment, chapters offer recommendations for tailoring interventions to different patients' needs. Important topics include how to deal with dilemmas in evaluation and what treatment strategies work best for addressing overlapping symptoms. The book also considers ways to improve the structure and cost-effectiveness of providing care in this challenging area. Throughout, scientific controversies and unanswered questions are highlighted and promising directions for future research identified. Synthesizing knowledge from multiple disciplines, this is an essential reference for mental health practitioners and trauma specialists--including neuropsychologists, clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers--as well as graduate students and trainees.

Incidence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Burned Service Members: Preliminary Report

Incidence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Burned Service Members: Preliminary Report PDF Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 8

Book Description
Although sustaining physical injury in theater increases service members' risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), exposure to explosive munitions may increase the risk of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The authors hypothesized a higher incidence of PTSD and mTBI in service members who sustained both burn and explosion injuries than in nonexplosion-exposed service members. A retrospective review of PTSD and mTBI assessments was completed on burned service members between September 2005 and August 2006. Subjects were divided into cohort groups: (1) PTSD and mTBI, (2) PTSD and no mTBI, (3) mTBI and no PTSD, (4) no mTBI and no PTSD. Specific criteria used for group classification were based on subjects' total score on the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, Military version (PCL-M), a clinical interview, and record review to meet American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine criteria for mTBI. Descriptive analyses were used. Results showed that 76 service members met the inclusion criteria. The incidence rate of PTSD was 32% and mTBI was 41%. Eighteen percent screened positive for PTSD and mTBI; 13% screened positive for PTSD, but not mTBI; 23% screened positive for mTBI but not PTSD; 46% did not screen positive for either PTSD or mTBI. The authors conclude that given the high incidence of these disorders in burned service members, further screening of PTSD and TBI appears warranted. Because symptom presentation in PTSD and mTBI is clinically similar at acute and subacute stages, and treatments can vary widely, further research investigating symptom profiles of PTSD and mTBI is warranted.

Management of Adults with Traumatic Brain Injury

Management of Adults with Traumatic Brain Injury PDF Author: David Brian Arciniegas
Publisher: American Psychiatric Pub
ISBN: 1585624047
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 561

Book Description
Management of Adults with Traumatic Brain Injury is an up-to-the-minute, comprehensive, and useful text designed to support busy physicians, nurses, and mental health professionals working with persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their families. Understanding and improving outcomes after TBI requires consideration of the effects of biomechanical forces on the brain and the interactions between the injury, the person experiencing it, and the psychosocial context in which TBI and its consequences occur. A multidisciplinary approach to the management of persons with TBI therefore is essential. Accordingly, this book presents and synthesizes the work of internationally recognized brain injury clinicians, scientists, and educators who were selected by a team of editors with backgrounds in psychiatry, neurology, psychology, and physiatry. This broad range of perspectives enhances understanding and provides nuanced yet practical information on the neuropsychiatric management of persons with TBI. Evidence-informed, concise, and clinically rich, Management of Adults with Traumatic Brain Injury will be of enormous value to health care providers grappling with the neurological and mental health consequences of this widespread public health problem.

Neurosensory Disorders in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

Neurosensory Disorders in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury PDF Author: Michael E. Hoffer
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128125489
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 452

Book Description
Mild traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI or Concussion) is an increasingly common public health issue in sports, military environments, and life in today’s active world. Despite a great deal of study and public attention to this disorder, knowledge about optimal diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment information remains lacking. Neurosensory symptoms have been shown to be the most frequent complications of mTBI in both the acute and chronic setting. Neurosensory Disorders in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury brings together both the basic science work as well as the clinical work in mTBI into one volume to provide a comprehensive examination of the neurosensory issues associated with this disorder. Coverage includes chapters on defining mild Traumatic Brain Injury, neurosensory consequences, neurosensory disorders in clinical practice, and diagnosis and treatment for neurosensory disorders in mTBI. This book is written for clinicians, researchers, residents and students in neurology and neuroscience. Provides a comprehensive examination of the neurosensory issues associated with mild Traumatic Brain Injury and concussion Brings together both the basic science work and the clinical work in mTBI into a single volume Helps clinicians understand the best diagnosis and treatment paths and puts current research into perspective for researchers

Outcome After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

Outcome After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury PDF Author: Luke Timothy Allan Mounce
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :

Book Description
Background and aims: The provenance of post-concussion symptoms (PCS) and post-traumatic stress (PTSD) after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is controversial. This thesis investigated factors influencing these two conditions separately, as well as the interplay between PCS and PTSD, in individuals with mTBI and a control sample without mTBI (orthopaedic injuries). Method: Consecutive adult attendees of an Emergency Department with mTBI or orthopaedic injury were prospectively recruited and completed the Rivermead Post-concussion Questionnaire (RPQ) and Trauma Screening Questionnaire (TSQ) for PTSD at two weeks (T1) and three months (T2) post-injury. The sample at T1 consisted of 34 with complicated mTBI, 76 with uncomplicated mTBI and 47 with orthopaedic injury, and 18 with complicated mTBI, 43 with uncomplicated mTBI and 33 orthopaedic controls at T2. Results: Although there were no differences in overall PCS symptomology between groups, a subset of PCS symptoms (headaches, dizziness and nausea) was found to be specific to mTBI at both time points. These symptoms are proposed to have a neurological basis, as opposed to a psychological basis. PTSD interacted with PCS, particularly in mTBI, such that PTSD was associated with greater 'neurogenic' and 'psychogenic' symptomology in this group, but only a moderate increase in psychogenic symptoms for controls. A model of the influence of PTSD on PCS is presented. PTSD was influenced by poor memory quality for the traumatic event and attribution of blame to others, but not by mTBI. Discussion and conclusions: Though mTBI may set the scene for at least neurogenic symptoms of PCS to occur, psychological mechanisms, particularly PTSD, have a significant role in the persistence of PCS. Our findings suggest the need for a clear story and sense of meaning for a traumatic event for good recovery from PTSD. Taken together, the results suggest that psychological interventions, particularly aimed at PTSD, may be most effective after mTBI.

Psychological Knowledge in Court

Psychological Knowledge in Court PDF Author: Gerald Young
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387256105
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 412

Book Description
PTSD, pain syndromes, traumatic brain injury: these three areas are common features of personal injury cases, often forming the cornerstone of expert testimony. Yet their complex interplay in an individual can make evaluation—and explaining the results in court—extremely difficult. Psychological Knowledge in Court focuses on this triad separately and in combination, creating a unique guide to forensic evaluations that fulfills both legal and clinical standards. Its meticulous review of the literature identifies and provides clear guidelines for addressing core issues in causality, chronicity, and assessment, such as: - Are there any definable risk factors for PTSD? - How prevalent is PTSD after trauma? - How do patients’ emotions relate to their pain experience? - Are current pain assessment methods accurate enough? - What is the role of pre-existing vulnerabilities in traumatic brain injury? - What exactly is "mild" TBI?

The Veterans Health Administration’s Treatment of PTSD and Traumatic Brain Injury Among Recent Combat Veterans (A CBO Study)

The Veterans Health Administration’s Treatment of PTSD and Traumatic Brain Injury Among Recent Combat Veterans (A CBO Study) PDF Author: Congressional Budget Office
Publisher: Lulu.com
ISBN: 1304121453
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :

Book Description


The Assessment and Treatment of Individuals with History of Traumatic Brain Injury and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: a Systematic Review of the Evidence

The Assessment and Treatment of Individuals with History of Traumatic Brain Injury and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: a Systematic Review of the Evidence PDF Author: U. S. Department of Veterans Affairs
Publisher: Createspace Independent Pub
ISBN: 9781489539977
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 78

Book Description
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been defined as trauma to the head that results in a decreased level of consciousness, amnesia, other neurologic or neuropsychologic abnormalities, skull fractures, intracranial lesions, or death. TBI can be caused by penetrating trauma or by blunt force, including acceleration/deceleration forces that cause the brain to collide with the skull. Blunt force TBI is typically classified by level of severity, most commonly differentiated as mild, moderate, or severe. The vast majority of civilian patients that are hospitalized for TBI are diagnosed with mild TBI (mTBI). While a similar ratio specific to soldiers or veterans is not readily available, mTBI is also prevalent in this population. Personnel engaged in the current military operations, Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF), are sustaining mTBI at unprecedented rates. One commonly referenced report estimated that nearly 20%, or 300,000, OEF/OIF veterans had sustained a TBI during deployment, many of these being mTBI. There has been much political and media interest in the rates of mTBI associated with the current conflicts. While most of those who sustain mTBI do not experience ongoing symptoms, a minority of individuals will experience some psychosocial, mental, and/or physical health problems. Thus, there is major concern across veteran healthcare providers, particularly the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and Department of Defense (DoD), regarding the identification and care of mTBI. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly prevalent and pernicious mental health problem with significant costs to the individual and society. It is an anxiety disorder characterized by avoidance behaviors, physiological hyperarousal, and re-experiencing symptoms following exposure to a traumatic event. VA and DoD healthcare providers are now facing a large population of OEF/OIF veterans who have sustained TBI, particularly mTBI, and also suffer from PTSD. However, the long-term health outcomes of individuals who have received diagnoses of both TBI and PTSD (TBI/ PTSD), especially mTBI and PTSD (mTBI/PTSD), are poorly understood. There is concern that current evidence-based practices to define, identify, and treat mTBI and PTSD may be less accurate and/or effective when the conditions co-occur. Thus, there is a need to develop an evidence base and identify best practices for patients with this co-diagnosis. The objective of this evidence synthesis report was to systematically review and summarize the published literature that addresses the epidemiology, assessment, and treatment of adults with mTBI/PTSD. While the epidemiologic review compares prevalence estimates of PTSD across all TBI severity levels, so as to examine any potential differences in prevalence by TBI severity, the assessment and treatment sections of this report were focused on mTBI because of the growing concerns related to this injury in the U.S. military population. We emphasized results most relevant to U.S. military personnel and veterans. We conducted a systematic literature review to address the following key questions: 1) What is the prevalence of comorbid TBI and PTSD? Does the reported prevalence vary by study population, trauma etiology, TBI severity (mild versus moderate and severe), or methods of case ascertainment? 2a) What is the relative accuracy of diagnostic tests used for assessing mTBI when mTBI is comorbid with PTSD? 2b) What is the relative accuracy of diagnostic tests used for assessing PTSD when PTSD is comorbid with mTBI? 3a) Are there psychosocial or pharmacological therapies used for treatment of mTBI and PTSD simultaneously? 3b) Are therapies for treatment of mTBI effective when mTBI is comorbid with PTSD? Is there evidence of harms? 3c) Are therapies for treatment of PTSD effective when PTSD is comorbid with mTBI? Is there evidence of harms?

An Investigation of Neurological Soft Signs as a Discriminating Factor Between Veterans with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, and Co-occurring Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

An Investigation of Neurological Soft Signs as a Discriminating Factor Between Veterans with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, and Co-occurring Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury PDF Author: David Joshua Rothman
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Brain
Languages : en
Pages : 145

Book Description
While multiple Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn veterans suffer from mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI), Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and co-morbid mTBI and PTSD, there remains difficulty disentangling the specific symptoms associated with each disorder using self-report and neurocognitive assessments. We propose that neurological soft signs (NSS), which are tasks associated with general neurologic compromise, may prove useful in this regard. Based on our review of the literature we hypothesized that individuals with PTSD would present with a greater number of NSS than controls or individuals with mTBI. Further, we hypothesized a synergistic effect, such that individuals with mTBI + PTSD would present with the greatest number of NSS. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed a subset of individuals (N=238) taken from a larger study of neurocognitive functioning in veterans. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological measures, which included the Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale (BDS), the current study's measure of NSS. A subset of other neuropsychological measures were also included to examine the utility of NSS over and above traditional neuropsychological measures. Individuals were removed from the study if they sustained a moderate/severe TBI or did not meet validity criteria on the Green's Word Memory Test or the Negative Impression Management subscale of the Personality Assessment Inventory. Binomial logistic and multinomial logistic regression were used to examine the ability of NSS to discriminate between the study groups, first by themselves and then after the variance explained by the traditional neuropsychological measures was accounted for. Exploratory cluster analyses were performed on neuropsychological measures and NSS to identify profiles of cognitive performance in the data set. Results indicated that individuals in the mTBI and/or PTSD group had more NSS compared to controls. Of the individual NSS items only a go/no-go task of the BDS discriminated between groups, with worse performance among individuals in the mTBI, PTSD, and mTBI + PTSD group compared to controls. In contrast, the overall BDS score and individual NSS, in general, did not discriminate between the mTBI, PTSD, and mTBI + PTSD group. Overall, the current study suggests that, when eliminating participants who do not meet validity criteria, NSS do not aid in discriminating between individuals with mTBI, PTSD, and mTBI + PTSD.

The Cost of Treating Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries

The Cost of Treating Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries PDF Author: Amy L. Gilliland
Publisher: Createspace Independent Pub
ISBN: 9781480218321
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 90

Book Description
Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries (mTBIs) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are two of the signature wounds of war. Due to the advances in technology the survival rates are higher than in previous wars, however, the weaponry has changed. The world has seen an increase in the use of suicide bombs, improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and rocket propelled grenades (RPGs) which increases the number of blast related injuries. One of the major problems with blast related injuries is that they can be invisible to the naked eye. The lack of physical evidence suggests the soldier is not injured and can be sent back into battle, when there could be an undetected internal injury. Due to the overlap in symptoms, many soldiers are being treated for PTSD instead of mTBI, which can cause long-term damage. In order to shed light on this issue, this thesis evaluates 2007-2008 active duty medical costs to determine the costs the PTSD and mTBI. The findings suggest that mTBI and PTSD account for .53% and 1.8%, respectively, of the 2008 population data sample. While this may seem like a small percentage this was only two months of data. However, it is important to properly diagnose mTBI and PTSD because these illnesses could cost the military member thousands of dollars in out of pocket medical costs.